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仙林学校丨中国南京丨雁飞建筑事务所
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发布时间:2024-07-10
仙林学校[1]是对“普通学校”的一次探讨。
虽然关于普通教育(Общеобразовательная)[2]的系统早在建国后就从苏联引入,但考虑到当时的国情,中央下放教育事业管理权,区域内中小学由地方负责投入,直到 1985 年义务教育才转变为以国家财政性投入为主;次年,我们才正式进入“普九”的重要阶段。因此,在相当长一段时间内,学校的建设标准是以各个省份的标准设计室或建筑院校提供的学校图集作为参照。“普通”(generality)关注点落在了经济性建造和关于教室单元的采光、通风、噪音、温控等基本物理性能的讨论。其背后既是应对在经济困难、机电匮乏时期的大班化教学的刚需,也是朴实地回应学生在青少年时期的生理成长和心理安全的需求。同时,因学校整体规模较小,尺度适中,建筑大多围绕操场线性布置,学生课间活动与场地的关系也就相对紧密。这种关系在大量的集体照中被记录下来,形成了那个时期的一种集体记忆。
▼仙林学校鸟瞰,Xianlin School ©苏圣亮
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仙林学校丨中国南京丨雁飞建筑事务所-3
The design of the Xianlin School [1] is an exploration of the “general school”.
Although the system of general education (Общеобразовательная) [2] was introduced by the USSR (The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) as early as after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, taking into account the national conditions at that time, the central government decentralized the management of educational undertakings, and the primary and secondary schools in the region were invested by the localities. It was not until 1985 that compulsory education was transformed into a state-financed program; the following year, we officially entered the important stage of “nine-year compulsory education”. As a result, for quite some time, school construction standards were based on the school architectural code atlases provided by the standard design offices or architectural institutes of individual provinces as a reference. The “generality” focus fell on economic construction and discussions about the basic physical properties of classroom units such as lighting, ventilation, noise, and temperature control. Behind it is both a response to the urgent need for large class sizes in times of economic hardship and lack of mechanical and electrical power, as well as a matter-of-fact response to the physical growth and psychological safety needs of students in their teenage years. At the same time, because the overall size of the school is small and moderately scaled, and the buildings are mostly arranged linearly around the playground, the relationship between students’ recess activities and the grounds is relatively close. This relationship is documented in a large number of group photographs, forming a collective memory of that period.
▼普通学校设计中的技术转移及国情路线,Technology transfer and national routes in general school design ©雁飞建筑事务所
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仙林学校丨中国南京丨雁飞建筑事务所-8
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仙林学校丨中国南京丨雁飞建筑事务所-10
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仙林学校丨中国南京丨雁飞建筑事务所-11
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